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Correspondence: glay logoglu department of physiology, faculty of medicine university of , ukurova, 01330 balcali, adana, trkiye.|
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To the Board of Directors KISSEI PHARMACEUTICAL CO., LTD. We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of KISSEI PHARMACEUTICAL CO., LTD. and its consolidated subsidiaries as at 31st March 1999 and 1998, and the related consolidated statements of income, shareholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended 31st March 1999, all expressed in Japanese yen. Our audits were made in accordance with auditing standards, procedures and practices generally accepted and applied in Japan and, accordingly, included such tests of the accounting records and such other auditing procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, the consolidated financial position of KISSEI PHARMACEUTICAL CO., LTD. and its consolidated subsidiaries as at 31st March 1999 and 1998, and the consolidated results of their operations and the cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended 31st March 1999 in conformity with accounting principles and practices generally accepted in Japan see Note 1 ; applied on a consistent basis. The amount expressed in U.S. dollars, provided solely for the convenience of the reader, have been translated on the basis set forth in Note 3 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
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Claim 1 of 37 Claims 1. A condensation aerosol for delivery of a drug selected from the group consisting of atenolol, pindolol, esmolol, propranolol, and metoprolol wherein the condensation aerosol is formed by heating a thin layer containing the drug, on a solid support, to produce a vapor of the drug, and condensing the vapor to form a condensation aerosol, characterized by less than 10% drug degradation products by weight, and an MMAD of less than 5 microns.
PREVENTION Fatal Degenerative Neurologic Illnesses in Men Who Participated in Wild Game Feasts--Wisconsin, 2002 Public Health and Aging: Trends in Aging--United States and Worldwide Outbreak of Group A Streptococcal Pneumonia Among Marine Corps Recruits--California, November 1December 20, 2002 Deaths Among Drivers of Off-Road Vehicles After Collisions With Trail Gates--New Hampshire, 1997-2002 Public Health Dispatch: Outbreaks of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections--Los Angeles County, California, 2002-2003 THE COVER Trouville, The Jetties, High Tide M. Therese Southgate A PIECE OF MY MIND Dumbing Down Harold W. Horowitz POETRY AND MEDICINE Death House Jack Coulehan JAMA 100 YEARS AGO THE BUSY PRACTITIONER AND HIS OPPORTUNITIES BOOKS, JOURNALS, NEW MEDIA Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology Diagnosis Management, vols 1 & 2; Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology Diagnosis Management CD-ROM Frank L. Iber Evolving Health: The Origins of Illness and How the Modern World Is Making Us Sick Bruce Rannala Learning Lung Sounds: Interactive Multimedia Course Rehan Haque; Robert Gillio Books, Journals, New Media Received CME ANNOUNCEMENT Online CME to Begin in Mid-2003 JAMA PATIENT PAGE Headaches Sharon Parmet; Cassio Lynm; Richard M. Glass and ultram.
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5. Non-chiral normal phase column in offline combination with the CHIRAL-AGP column Collect the eluate, containing the drug and the metabolite separately, from the normal phase column, evaporate the solvent, dissolve in the mobile phase used for the chiral chromatography and inject on the chiral column. The 1. CHIRAL-AGP column alone Retention and enantioselectivity are regulated with the method is used for very complicated samples mobile phase composition, i.e. pH, organic modifier na- Examples: Disopyramide, Chloroquine, Trimipramine, Mianserin ture and concentration, buffer type and concentration. MS detection is preferable due to the high detection selectivity, however also UV and fluorescense detectors are 6. Column Switching Cut a band from a non-chiral reversed-phase column and used. Examples: Bupivacaine, Mepivacaine, Ibuprofen, switch it automatically over to the CHIRAL-AGP colNaproxen, Metoprolol, Verapamil, Alfuzosin, umn using a valve. The method is used for very compliOxamniquine, Methadone, Ketoprofen, Labetalol, cated samples. Vamicamide, Mefloquine, Ifosfamide, Ketorolac, Examples: Metoprolol, Verapamil, Bupivacaine, Warfarin, Terbutaline, Amlodipine Ketamine The examples given for each way are taken from the CHIRAL-AGP reference list. The latest version of the reference list can be found in the new "Chiral Application Handbook" and on chromtech.
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|Chiou, Groll, Walsh exert their antifungal effects by specifically inhibiting the protein synthesis elongation cycle in yeasts without affecting protein synthesis machinery in mammalian systems  Fig. 6 ; . The proposed mechanism of action of sordarins appears to be inhibition of elongation factor 2 . Some sordarin derivatives, such as GM222712 and GM237354, display excellent in vitro activities against a wide range of pathogenic fungi, including Candida spp., C. neoformans, P. carinii, and certain filamentous fungi and emerging invasive fungal pathogens . Pharmacokinetic studies, in vivo models, and safety data are pending and will delineate whether sordarins can be further developed. RECOMBINANT HUMAN CYTOKINES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF FUNGAL INFECTION IN NEUTROPENIC PATIENTS Reversal or amelioration of immunosuppression is a prerequisite for successful management of invasive fungal infections in any patient. This may include dose reduction or withdrawal of corticosteroids, transfusion of granulocytes, and use of cytokines such as G-CSF and GM-CSF ; . Utilization of recombinant hematopoietic cytokines has led to shortening of the duration of neutropenia and, thereby, to a shortening of the period of greatest risk for developing invasive fungal infections. On the other hand, they also allow for increased dose intensity of antineoplastic chemotherapy. Thus, the full clinical impact of this now ubiquitously employed modality on invasive fungal infections is unclear. Laboratory studies with GM-CSF suggest that this recombinant cytokine may be active as adjunctive therapy and triamterene.
The present study found that atorvastatin is the statin with the largest market share and the greatest increase in drug utilization rates. Although it is the most potent statin for lowering total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides, as described in the Comparative Study of HMGCoA Reductase Inhibitor, Atorvastatin, Versus Equivalent Dose Strengths of Statins CURVES ; 1998 ; 29 ; , it was not until the Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Acute Cholesterol Lowering MIRACL ; trial was published in 2001 30 ; that any clinical trial outcome data existed for atorvastatin. Yet, there was a striking increase in utilization apparent from its introduction to the market in April 1997. This increase in use and large market share for atorvastatin is in spite of the fact that simvastatin and pravastatin sodium have demonstrated mortality benefits from large clinical trials, and that pravastatin sodium is relatively less expensive than atorvastatin 2, 3, 31, ; . The impact of the CURVES trial regarding lipid lowering potential, or the marketing efforts for this agent likely influenced its significant impact on utilization and market share within the statin medication class. Previous studies have illustrated the impact of the Scandanavian Simvastatin Survival Study 4S ; on the utilization of statins in high-risk patients 33 ; . While clinical practice guidelines for hypertension and post-AMI continue to promote the use of beta-blockers, the major changes in beta-blocker evidence results from those trials conducted recently 1996 to 2001 ; in heart failure patients MERIT, COPERNICUS, CIBIS-II and US carvedilol trials ; 4-7 ; . While it was found that the most commonly prescribed agents have remained atenolol and metoprolol tartrate, it is the newest agents, proven beneficial for heart failure, that had the largest relative increases in use. The increases in carvedilol use are apparent from November 1996 onward, and those for bisoprolol, from February 2001, both of which coincide with the publication of supportive clinical trial evidence for their use in heart failure. Use of the calcium antagonist amlodipine besylate substantially increased over the study period. This is despite a paucity of clinical trial outcome data for this agent within the class or compared with other cardiovascular medication classes. Amlodipine besylate was studied for heart failure in the Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Evaluation PRAISE ; 1 published in 1996 ; 34 ; and PRAISE 2 presented in 2000 ; 35 ; studies, and while results of PRAISE 1 appeared promising in a select group with nonischemic cardiomyopathy, the PRAISE 2 trial found no benefit. While long-acting calcium antagonists are now recommended as first-line agents for isolated systolic hypertension and no specific agent is recommended, the clinical trials on which this recommendation is based were not conducted with amlodipine besylate but were based on the Sys-Eur and Sys-China studies with nitrendipine and nifedipine 36, 37 ; . So concrete reasons for the substantial increase in the use of amlodipine besylate remain elusive, and the increase may simply be the result of strong marketing initiatives. It is important to note that many medications, such as ACEIs for congestive heart failure and statins for coronary heart disease, are still underutilized despite the large increase in utilization found in the present study 33 ; . Focusing on using prescribed feedback systems to increase the use of evidence-based medications over those without evidence of benefit must take precedence so that patient outcomes and population health are improved.
More healthynew age related resource pages one important note: if you suspect that you may have systemic yeast, or candida, or if you have not done a detox in over a year's time, the plantadophilus mentioned previously may initially cause a feeling of over-fullness and trimox.|
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The combination of ACE inhibitor and -blocker therapy after a myocardial infarction may provide further benefits. A retrospective analysis of data from the Survival and Ventricular Enlargement study showed that the use of -blockade with ACE inhibition in postmyocardial infarction patients was associated with decreases in both cardiovascular mortality and incidence of severe heart failure.25 In addition, in a smallscale study, intravenously followed by orally ; administered carvedilol begun early after myocardial infarction significantly reduced cardiovascular events compared with placebo.26 However, because only retrospective and or meta-analysis data are available to support the benefits of -blockade in patients who have left ventricular dysfunction after a myocardial infarction, further studies are either ongoing or completed, including the large-scale Carvedilol Post Infarct Survival Control in Left Ventricular Dysfunction Trial; this study is investigating the effectiveness of -blockade with carvedilol in patients after myocardial infarction who have left ventricular dysfunction, with or without symptoms of heart failure. MANAGING HEART FAILURE TO SLOW DISEASE PROGRESSION Neurohormonal activation occurs early in the natural history of heart failure and is often present well before patients develop symptoms related to ventricular dysfunction.27 In cases of mild heart failure, some data suggest that the SNS is activated but that other neurohormonal systems might not be. This preferential activation is thought to contribute to arrhythmias and, most likely, to the progression of heart failure; it also has been linked to mortality in patients with mild heart failure.28 At first glance, administration of additional drugs may seem to be unwarranted in patients with mild heart failure whose condition appears to be well compensated by ACE inhibitors and diuretics. However, these patients are at high risk for progressive clinical deterioration, and their mortality remains unacceptably high. Consequently, there is sound rationale for the early use of -blockers in these patients to slow disease progression. -blockade using carvedilol, bisoprolol, or metoprolol ; added to standard therapy with an ACE inhibitor and diuretics has been shown to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality.810 In addition, there is evidence that -blockers effectively prevent disease progression. The addition of carvedilol to ACE inhibitorbased therapy in patients with mild, but well-compensated, heart failure reduced clinical progression of the disease and valtrex.
NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS-- Continued ; Year ended December 31, 2004 F.2. Differences in presentation between French GAAP and US GAAP Certain differences exist between the presentation of financial statements under French GAAP and US GAAP. Below is a summary of the significant presentation differences for the Group. Presentation of Alliance agreements with BMS Under French GAAP, the Alliance entities majority-owned by BMS are presented in a manner similar to the equity method with the Group's share of the Alliance's operating profit recorded in "Other operating income expense ; " in the statements of income. Alliance entities majority-owned by the Group are fully consolidated, with BMS' share of the operating profit recorded in "Other operating income expense ; " in the statements of income. Under US GAAP, the entities majority-owned by BMS are presented as equity method investees in the condensed US GAAP financial statements with the Group's share of the operating profits of the Alliance recorded as income from equity method investees in the statements of income. Under US GAAP, Alliance entities majority-owned by the Group are fully consolidated in the condensed US GAAP financial statements with BMS' share of the operating profit presented in minority interests in the condensed US GAAP statements of income. The difference is solely in terms of classification and display and has no impact on shareholders' equity or net income. These reclassifications have been reflected in the condensed US GAAP balance sheets and statements of income. Summarized financial information relating to Alliance entities majority-owned by BMS is presented in note F.4 on an aggregate basis with the Group's other equity method investees. License income and government levies Under French GAAP, the Group records license income and specific government levies related to the pharmaceuticals sector paid in certain countries in "Cost of goods sold". Under US GAAP, license income is reflected as "Revenues", and specific government levies related to the pharmaceuticals sector are reflected either as a deduction of sales or in "Selling and general expenses" depending on the substance of such levies. These reclassifications have been reflected in the condensed US GAAP statements of income. Exceptional items Certain amounts presented as exceptional income and expense non-operating ; in the consolidated statements of income under French GAAP do not qualify as non-operating items under US GAAP. Cash flow presentation Under French GAAP, the share of undistributed earnings of the Alliance entities majority-owned by and under the operational management of BMS, and BMS' share of undistributed earnings of the Alliance entities majority-owned by and under the operational management of the Group, are presented in "Change in other operating assets and liabilities net ; " in the statements of cash flows. Under US GAAP, the share of undistributed earnings of the Alliance entities majority-owned by BMS would be presented under "Share in undistributed earnings of equity investees", and BMS' share of undistributed earnings of the Alliance entities majority-owned by the Group would be presented as "Minority interests" in the statements of cash flows. This presentation difference has no impact on cash from operations as reported under French GAAP. 234.
Although atenolol and metoprolol tartrate or succinate salt ; are currently the beta-adrenergic blockers most commonly prescribed following acute mi, neither of these agents has been demonstrated in a large-scale randomized trial to improve either survival or the risk of reinfarction and vasotec.
There are some differences in side effects but the drop-out rates between the drugs are similar.
1. National Heart Foundation of Australia and The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Guidelines on the Contemporary Management of the Patient with Chronic Heart Failure in Australia, 2002. : new.heartfoundation .au downloads cont.management . Accessed 5 Feb 2004. 2. Therapeutic Guidelines: Cardiovascular 2003. 3. MERIT-HF Study Group. Lancet 1999; 353: 20017. Packer M, et al. Circulation 2002; 106: 21949. Packer M, et al. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 134955. CIBIS-II Investigators and Committees. Lancet 1999; 353: 913. Leizorovicz A, et al. Heart J 2002; 143: 3017. Gottlieb S, et al. Circulation 2002; 105: 11821188. MacAuley S, Jorgenson D. CPJ RPC 2003; 136: 3541. Hjalmarson , et al. JAMA 2000; 283: 12951302. RESOLVD Investigators. Circulation 2000; 101: 37884. Sandberg A, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1988; 33 Suppl ; : S9S14. 13. Toprol-XL Product Information. AstraZeneca Pty Ltd. December 2003 14. Poole-Wilson PA, et al. Lancet 2003; 362: 713. Packer M, et al. Heart J 2001; 141: 899907. Metra M, et al. Circulation 2000; 102: 54651. Wikstrand J, et al. J Coll Cardiol 2002; 40: 4918. Prepared March 2004 and verapamil.
1. Type all or part of the trade or generic drug name in the `Search for Drug Name: ' box. The more specific your search term, the more focused your search results. In other words, if you know the strength and or route, include it in the search to eliminate extraneous search results. 2. Select to search the DRUGDEX System, Martindale or the Spanish Martindale database subscription is required for access to database ; by clicking the corresponding option button 3. Click the Search button to begin the search for the product information.
Ams B. The diabetogenic potential of thiazide-type diuretic and beta-blocker combinations in patients with hypertension. J Hypertens 2005; 23: 1777-81. Gress TW, Nieto FJ, Shahar E, Wofford MR, Brancati FL. Hypertension and antihypertensive therapy as risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. New Engl J Med 2000; 342: 905-12. Pepine CJ, Handberg EM, Cooper-DeHoff RM, Marks RG, Kowey P, Messerli FH, et al; INVEST Investigators. A calcium antagonist vs a non-calcium antagonist hypertension treatment strategy for patients with coronary artery disease. The International VerapamilTrandolapril Study INVEST ; : a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003; 290: 2805-16. Lithell H. Metabolic effects of antihypertensive drugs interacting with the sympathetic nervous system. Eur.Heart J. 1992; 13 Suppl A: 53-7. Bakris GL, Fonseca V, Katholi RE, McGill JB, Messerli FH, Phillips RA, et al; GEMINI Investigators. Metabolic effects of carvedilol vs metoprolol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 292: 2227-36. Devereux RB, Dahlof B, Gerdts E, Boman K, Nieminen MS, Papademetriou V, et al. Regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy by losartan compared with atenolol: the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension LIFE ; trial. Circulation 2004; 110: 1456-62. Dahlof B, Pennert K, Hansson L. Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy-a meta-analysis. Clin Exp Hypertens A 1992; 14: 173-80. Ciulla MM, Paliotti R, Esposito A, Diez J, Lopez B, Dahlof B, et al. Different effects of antihypertensive therapies based on losartan or atenolol on ultrasound and biochemical markers of myocardial fibrosis: results of a randomized trial. Circulation 2004; 110: 552-7. Pischon T, Sharma AM. Use of beta-blockers in obesity hypertension: potential role of weight gain. Obes Rev 2001; 2: 275-80. Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rotnitzky A, Manson JE. Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes mellitus in women. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122: 481-6. Bangalore S, Messerli FH. Beta-blockers and exercise. J Coll Cardiol 2006; 48: 1284-5. Donald DE, Milburn SE, Shepherd JT. Effect of cardiac denervation on the maximal capacity for exercise in the racing greyhound. J Appl Physiol 1964; 19: 849-52. Epstein S, Robinson BF, Kahler RL, Braunwald E. Effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on the cardiac response to maximal and submaximal exercise in man. J Clin Invest 1965; 44: 1745-53. Lim PO, MacFadyen RJ, Clarkson PB, MacDonald TM. Impaired exercise tolerance in hypertensive patients. Ann Intern Med 1996; 124: 41-55. Anderson RL, Wilmore JH, Joyner MJ, Freund BJ, Hartzell AA, Todd CA, et al. Effects of cardioselective and nonselective beta-adrenergic blockade on the performance of highly trained runners. J Cardiol 1985; 55: 149D-54D. Turner GG, Nelson RR, Nordstrom LA, Diefenthal HC, Gobel FL. Comparative effect of nadolol and propranolol on exercise tolerance in patients with angina pectoris. Br Heart J 1978; 40: 1361-70. Messerli FH, Grossman E. Beta-blocker therapy and depression. JAMA 2002; 288: 1845-6. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, . et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003; 289: 2560-72. Bangalore S, Messerli FH. Hypertension in the Elderly - A compelling contraindication for beta-blockers? J Hum Hypertens. In press 2006 The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II CIBIS-II ; : a randomised trial. Lancet 1999; 353: 9-13. Effect of metoprolol CR XL in chronic heart failure: Metoprolol and vicoprofen and toprol.
Enclosure #3 - Article on Mandibular dysmorphology in unicoronal synostosis and plagiocephaly without synostosis A study at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri, reports that patients with plagiocephaly without synostosis have distinctive skull dysmorphologies. The study proves that the hypothesized presence of diagnosis specific mandibular dysmorphology in plagiocephaly without synostosis is confirmed. This is proven with statistical significance utilizing a common statistical technique the t test.
Counselling patients about "risks" and "protection" can easily sound negative, especially to adolescents and others who may feel confused or guilty about their sexuality. Health care providers should strive to maintain a positive attitude and emphasize the benefits of enjoying a healthy sex life while protecting health and fertility. The next section looks at ways of getting these messages across in the community and within reproductive health clinic settings and vioxx.
Table 3. Average Asthma-Related Costs in a 6-Month Period, by Medication Treatment Group.
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1512. HAYASHI, S. KOBAYASHI, T. KAMATA, N D H. K., A OZAKI. 1964. Studies on the Vibrio disease of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri irideus ; I. Therapeutic effect of the nitrofuran derivatives. J. Fac. Fish. Prefect. Univ. Mie 6: 171-180. KINGSFORD, 1975. Treatment of Exotic Marine E. Fish Diseases. Pet Reference Series No. 1. Palmetto Publishing Co., St. Petersburg, Florida, 63 PP. KUBOTA, S. S., A N D K. HAGITA.1963. Studies on the diseases of marine culture fishes. 11. Pharmaco-dynamic effects of nitrofurazone for fish diseases. J. Fac. Fish. Prefect. Univ. Mie 6: 125144. MAESTRONE, . 1984. Evaluation of potentiated G sulfonamide Romet in the control of furunculosis in salmonids. Salmonid 8: 24-27. FOR LABORATORY NATIONAL COMMITTEE CLINICAL STANDARDS. 1984. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disc Susceptibility Tests, 3rd Ed., Approved Standard. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards NCCLS ; , Villanova, Pennsylvania, 93 pp. NUSBAUM, E., A N D E. SHOTTS. 1981. AbsorpK. tion of selected antimicrobic drugs from water by channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 38: 993-996. PLUMB, A., A N D T. SCHWEDLER. J. 1982. Enteric septicemia of catfish ESC ; : A new bacterial problem surfaces. Aquaculture Mag. 8: 26-27. ROGERS, J., A N D B. AUSTIN. 1983. Oxolinic acid C. for control of enteric redmouth disease in rainbow trout. Vet. Rec. 112: 83. SHOTTS, E. B., V. L. VANDERWORK, D L. M. AN CAMPBELL. 1976. Occurrence of R factors associated with Aeromonas hydrophila from aquarium fish and waters. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33: 736-740. SNIESZKO, F. 1975. A comprehensive list of the S. most important diseases of fishes and the drugs and chemicals used for their control. Trop. Fish Hobbyist Dec.: 14-34. , A N D H. AXELROD. 1971. Diseases of Fishes. TFH Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey, 127 pp.
With reversible airway disease. This suggests that beta-blockers should be avoided in patients with a history of reactive airway disease unless the patient does not tolerate any other class of antihypertensive. In such case, a cardioselective beta-blocker may be initiated while maintaining optimal treatment with bronchodilators.3 A recent Cochrane review studied 19 homogeneous randomized, blinded, controlled trials that looked at the use of several cardioselective beta-blockers in patients with COPD. The betablockers used in these studies were atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, practolol, celiprolol, and acebutolol. These data suggest that the use of cardioselective beta-blockers in patients with COPD has no major adverse effects on FEV1, respiratory symptoms, or response to beta-2 agonists even in those with severe chronic airways obstruction. In addition, when cardioselective beta-blockers are given to patients with COPD, it appears that these agents do not produce a significant short-term reduction in airway function or in the incidence of COPD exacerbations. However, these agents should be used with caution and be.
There is only one previous Sumerian written mention of headaches in the epic poem Enki and Ninhursag.2 The two lines are: In Heaven ; "the sick-eyed says not "I sick-eyed' the sick-headed says ; not `I sick-headed'". The description of the headache in the first incantation offers a more detailed picture of the headache including the "distress the neck muscles". The unrelenting nature of the headache and blowing motif is reminiscent of the more recent Mesopotamian incantation: "Headache rometh over the desert, blowing like the wind." Frequently, the age of this particular incantation is mentioned as 3000BC. The primary source of this quotation is The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia by R. C. Thompson 3 ; . He states that the documents "were drawn up .about the first half of the seventh century before Christ". He speculates, however, about possible previous recensions of "not less than six thousand years old" ; . It is not entirely clear whether these texts describe a primary headache disorder or a secondary headache due to a catastrophic intracranial process e.g. infectious or hemorrhagic ; . Other sources regarding Mesopotamian medicine reveal that medical practitioners were familiar with "continuous" as well as recurrent headaches.8 One of the approaches toward these texts is to see them in the light of today's medical paradigm. It is tempting to label these headaches with current medical terminology as a particular type of headache as some authors do. These translations are imperfect, frequently leading to a scholastic discourse and disagreement among the Sumerologists. The tablets are often fragmentary, cryptic and poorly preserved. Usually, this leads to an unsuccessful search of the pharmaco-therapeutic effects of the ingredients used in the ritual "pure cow" and "purifying water" in this case ; . Another approach is to analyze these as a part of magical medicine with diseases caused by demons and gods. Yet another approach is to view this as a literary document inspired by certain events, or as medico-poetics. It is tempting to label these incantations as the first recorded descriptions of headache treatment either magical or therapeutic ; . Therapeutic options for headaches are also present in Ancient Egyptian papyri. The oldest Papyrus Ramesseum III is dated 1800 BC 4 ; . However, both sources--Egyptian papyri and Sumerian clay tablets--are the copies of even older.
Drug Name Generics acebutolol HCl atenolol bisoprolol fumarate metoprolol tartrate nadolol propranolol HCl sotalol timolol maleate Brands INDERAL LA INNOPRAN XL TOPROL XL Drug Tier 1 Req. Limits and trazodone.